Annual Report Details

Annual Report 1995-1996

Deepalaya Annual Report for the year 1995-96. The report is an account of community work that we as an organization doing for the less-privileged people of society. The report is a detailed document about our work, impact, collaboration, donors, and financials.

Annual Report 1995-1996

Deepalaya started an ambitious project – Deepalaya Formal School at Kalkaji to cater to 4000 slum children with best kind of education available in our country. Stneare layed. We do not know where from the money will come. Faith in almighty kept it going.


Deepalaya has been implementing various development programmes in over 34  slum clusters of Delhi.  In its seventeen years of steady growth, Deepalaya has intervened to change the lives of numerous children, their families and communities in a dynamic approach through Education, Health, Income Generation Programmes and Community Organisation.  Deepalaya is scheduled to diversity and expand into newer areas like Issue/Desk Area,  Street and Working Children, Children of Prostitutes, Disability Project etc.

The bygone year 1995-96 has been fruitful in a promising and progressive way.  Along cherished dream to acquire land and establish a formal school to educate and nurture over 2500 children under a single roof is being realised with work already begun to construct the school building after obtaining the Plan approved by DDA,  When fully equipped it will provide educational, vocational, cultural and sports opportunities exclusively for the deprived and disadvantaged children living in the slums of South Delhi Areas.  1995-96, has been specially useful for Deepalaya in obtaining Global visibility through media coverage.  A number of major News papers and Magazines like Times of India, Indian Express, Pioneer, The Hindu, Hindustan Times, Dainik Hindustan, Rashtriya Sahara(Magazine), Jansatta, Amar Ujala, Young Expression, The Statesman, Khaleej Times and Kuwait Times provided local and international news features on our activities and accomplishments.

Electronic Media Coverage included regular airing of Deepalaya Commercials on 4 channels of Star TV Network, Zee Television Network, EL, TV, YES TV, Doordarshan and World Television Network etc.
Deepalaya School Children were in the lime light during most part of the year in cultural and academic performances.  Prime among them being a presentation by 100 Deepalaya School Children performing a cultural number emphasising the need to spread literacy at a literacy rally on Rajiv Jayanti Day.  5000 children participated in this literacy mission at Indira Gandhi Indoor Stadium. Chief Executive of Deepalaya was also featured in the All India Radio expressing his valuable thoughts on Literacy Mission as programmed for the National Literacy Day.  The children from Deepalaya successfully passed the All India UNESCO information Test and the pride of the test being the rare distinction of one of our students ranking fourth at the All India Level.

Process documentation of Phase-in project and strategic planning for phase out project were externally studied.  This helped to re-look at the strength and weakness of the two simultaneous strategies adopted by Deepalaya.

Deepalaya is in dialogue with Spastic Society of Northern India to jointly undertake activities to bring relief to the disabled children and their silently suffering parents.  Training of specialist teachers, counsellors and establishing community based Rehabilitation Center are some of the objectives of this collaboration.

A project on Street and Working Children and the children of the Prostitutes is under planning for integrating them in to the main stream and providing honour and dignity to their future.
Twenty children from Deepalaya Formal School, had the fortune to take their maiden flight sponsored by East West Airlines.  They expressed the voyage as a fantasy as they could not even dream of.
Programmes on Environment, Eco-conservation, Sanitation and Waste Disposal and Training in these areas were largely conducted by establishing linkages with cleaner Delhi Training Centre, Trees for life, All India Women’s Conference and Indian Environment Society.

The credibility and visibility of Deepalaya has encouraged our faith to raise fund for medical assistance to poor individuals suffering from chronic ailment and needing support for open heart surgery and kidney transplantation.  Fund raised included grant received from Prime Minister’s relief fund.  Three cases of high cost treatments were supported with upto 50% of their operation cost.

Deepalaya Plan Project (West Delhi)

Deepalaya Plan Project has done a decade of development work in West Delhi.  The year 1995-96 has primarily concentrated in facilitating the shifting of responsibilities and smooth transition of responsibilities from Deepalaya to local Community Based Organisations.  As the deadline for complete phase-out is set for 1998, programmes and plans during the last twelve months dwelled around planning for phase-out strategies.

Special training were organised on Account keeping, Programme planning, Personality development.  Thrift and credit, First aid, Health awareness and Family planning.  Social entrepreneurs were given training as Remedial Education teachers, Balwadi teachers and Health guides.

Exposure trips to Wisitex’95 and PLAN Mela’95 were facilitated for six community based income Generation groups.

Linkages have been established between CBO’s and other Institutions for technical and financial support.  CBO’s were introduced to Delhi Action Group (a network of voluntary agencies) Meeting to present their problems and suggestions for solutions.  Linkages were also established with UNDP, SOSVA, USAID and UBSP officials to chalk out areas of collaborations.

In addition to regular camps on Immunization, Dental and Cancer camps, special camps were organised by Drishtikon specialising in AIDS, Reproductive Health and AIDS awareness.  Baby shows were organised to develop awareness on essential child care issues.

10 community based organisation have got registered during the year bringing the total number to 32.  Out of them 18 have obtained 12A and 80G Registration under Income Tax Act and another 10 CBO’s have applied for the same.

Empowerment of women:-  Community based Organisations are fairly balanced to provide equal representation for Women participation.  In the decision making bodies 55.9% voting strength rests with women members.  Six credit co-operatives exclusively run by Women is successfully operating in 5 CBO’s.  It is also note worthy that 5 CBOs are formed with ALL women members only, 27 women are trained as TOTs in Health sector among 111 Health educators. Participation of women in Small savings, Sanitation and Literacy is encouraged to provide the women security, recognition and status in the family and society at large.

In reaching towards the goal for sustainability 22 CBO’s have come together to make Two Primary Health Centres as also meeting 50% of the administrative cost on their own. Health workers have been appointed to take full time care of the centres and these centres have established linkages with FPAI (Family Planning Association of India) to provide free service to them.  These centres were used by the Government during Pulse Polio drive which proved an immense success because of the involvement of the CBO leaders.

Phase in Project (West Delhi)

The Phase-in process is currently on in seven clusters of North West Delhi namely Indira Camp, Gandhi Camp, Rana Pratap Bagh, Hyderpur, Sonia Park, S.P. Block and Gouri Shankar Basti.  The process of Phase-in is based on Planning Cum Micro Realisation (PCMR) approach using a participatory methodology through which  a wide variety of ongoing activities/events are organised.  The emphasis has been on mobilising maximum internal resources, linkages and assistance.

During the period April-95 to March-96, these projects have had significant accomplishments.  The project has succeeded in establishing rapport, evincing the interest among the community participants thereby mobilising  substantial community involvement.  Each cluster has witnessed the emergence of new leadership from the grassroots as a direct result of Deepalaya intervention.

Each of the clusters presently has a Crusader who is facilitating the process.  Social entrepreneurs
identified, trained and nurtured from with-in the community, constitute the human resource
A corporate partnership between a business house and an NGO, this School is just one year old.  A review of the year 1995-1996 reveals that this school is viewed as the rightful third alternative for the poor who are at crossroads, as quality education in Government schools are wanting and expensive education of public schools are not afforded.  Ramditti JR Narang Deepalaya School was established as an educational unit on the one hand and as the nodal point of development programme on the other.
In addition to education the school facilitates an area development programme, mobilising people, making them vocal and participatory on issues like Education, Women development etc. through informal contact and parent teacher meetings.

Education is the main programme, the school operates in two shifts, morning and afternoon.  Emphasis is given on overall development of the child.  Syllabus consists of English, Hindi, Maths, Stories, Poems, Song, Drawing and Painting, Classical Dance training, besides English conversation classes and excursions are also organised.

South Delhi Project

The period 1995-96 saw implementation of the Deepalaya Development Paradigm and introduction of the Planning cum Micro Realisation (PCMR) concept in phase-in clusters towards integrated Community Development Programme at all eight project sites.

The overall level of activity in South Delhi Project was lower during 1995-96 as compared to earlier years, primarily due to consolidation of existing programmes and planning a transition from a service delivery approach to a community managed programme.

Development of the social entrepreneur as a Community Resource is continuing to gain acceptance.  Programme activities during the period under review have laid stress on inculcating Community Awareness on major issues in all areas of Education, Income Generation, Social and Cultural areas, Environment, pollution and Protection, Women Rights and Gender specific Social Issues, Girl child development and Preventive Community Health Care.

The Pulse Polio campaign launched in association with Delhi Government has reached out to over 5000 children during December – 1995 and January -1996, a record coverage by any voluntary agency.
The total Literacy campaign during 1995-96 made 789 adults literate and 197 families totally literate.

The integrated Community Development Programmes are being implemented in eight slum clusters of South Delhi Area namely:
1. Sanjay Colony     2. Gole Kuan    3. Transit Camp     4 . Gandhi Basti      5. Tagore Basti     6. V.P. Singh Camp    7. Karpoori Thakur Camp     8. Indira Camp
Extending to over 49100 persons in 11135 house holds.

Deepalaya Communication Division

Deepalaya Communication Division was established in 1991, with the prime objective to create awareness amongst public about the cause for which Deepalaya exists.

Major goal for Communication Division is to mobilise resources for the programmes of Deepalaya as well as for providing self reliance to Deepalaya as a whole.

A review of 1995-1996 justifies the efforts of Deepalaya Communication Division in realising these goals,
Corporate institutions were addressed in Okhla Industrial Area to generate funds for the School Programme.  This resulted in gaining the partnership of Leela Prem Narain Trust contributing Rs.88,000/- worth goods in kind for enriching the school programme.

The Deepalaya news letter was published every quarter as a specific responsibility of Communication Division, increasing the circulation to over 6000.

Twelve donation boxes were placed this year in leading Hotels, Garment Shop, Restaurants and Gift Emporium.  It is providing a regular source of income for Deepalaya.  They are also acting as the information point for sharing Deepalaya literature and brochure.  Communication Division has the responsibility of also raising fund through sponsorship programme.  A total of 292 new sponsors were identified during the reporting period.

A major fund raising event Abhinaya 95 was organised on 26 November’95 to integrate children of Public Schools with children living in the slums and studying in Deepalaya School.  The twin aim of Integration and Sensitization was very successful for Deepalaya by establishing lasting relationship with Kalka Public School and Cambridge School.  On this occasion a sum of over Rs,320000/- was raised, major part coming from the souvenir released.

Deepalaya Communication Division began with a proposal for raising five percent of the total funds required in the initial years.  It is targeted to gradually reach 50% of all resources needed for Deepalaya as a step towards diminishing dependency on donor agencies.  During the financial year 1995-96 ten percent of the total receipts is contributed by the Fund Raising Department.

Looking back at the achievements during the last five years,  Deepalaya Communication Division has raised over Rs.2 crores in kind which includes professional support and media space and other materials. A sum of Rs.70 lakhs in cash was also raised.

Communication Division obtain regular coverage of Deepalaya activities and programmes in leading New Papers, National and International Television features and Lecture sessions in corporate houses with the sole aim of communicating and raising funds so as to achieve self reliance by the year 2000.

Deepalaya School

Deepalaya school can be termed as the heart of the organisation.  Located in the industrial slums of Okhla, it caters for the educational need of 772 children of the adjoining slums.

In the spirit of the National Policy of Education, which seeks to provide equal opportunities and exposure to all, Deepalaya school imparts English medium education to the slum children, which can open window to a wide world for them.  In a unique fashion, the school attempts to blend the elite elements of a public school with the realities of slum-life.

The school functions in two shifts with a team of Dedicated teachers, support staff, headed by a full time Principal-cum-Administrator.  The salient features of the school are:

a) Greater emphasis on the over all growth and development of the child through various child oriented programmes.
b)Value-based education.
c) Academic rating comparable to that of any good school.
d) Starting of class IX in the New Session in the interest of 26 children who cleared Class VIII.
e) A well-equiped library, sports facilities and hobby based classes during summer(work education).
f) Emphasis on the communication aspect of English language encouragement in creative writing in English and Hindi.
g) Free uniform, books and nominal fees to create a sense of involvement and belonging for the community.
h)Sufficient numbers of excursion, picnics, outing to take optimal care of the mental health of growing children.
i) Special unit for the handicapped functioning increasingly within the formal school setup.
j)Extension of the school building, taking into account factors of eco friendliness.

4. Results.
The success rate of this year was as high as 97%.  It was 1% higher than the previous year.  A detailed breakup is given below

Class     No.of students Passed % Average Score 
LKG-UKG                                          141 97%   83%

401   94% 52%
VI-VIII                141                                     99% 55%

5. Achievements
Subash Dhanesh, a student of class VII secured All India 4th position in UNESCO test with a record score of 90%.  The success rate in the said test and the UN test was cent percent.

Deepalaya Over view

No. of Beneficiaries in each class

Creche  –  533, Pre school – 6072, Non Formal Education – 2346, Remedial Education – 8291, Parent Teacher Meeting – 792, Adult Education  – 1031, Talent Development – 1442, National Open School  -164, Education Tour – 461, Formal Education Deepalaya School  – 772, Deepalaya Ramditti School  -169

Community Organisation Beneficiaries

Informal Groups  -1629, Formal groups – 2946, Registered groups – 35, Registered U/s 12A and 80G  – 18, Community building structure  – 24, Old age groups  – 23, Legal Education  – 85, Family Assistance – 1100, Community Revolving Fund  – 201, Bal Bhavishya Kosh – 300, Rupee-a-day scheme – 2180, Credit and Savings – 24

Community Training

Community  Development  – 42, Leadership  – 31, Self Evaluation – 15, CBO operational training – 21, Account keeping – 45

Health  Beneficiaries

Pre & Post Natal Care – 1028, Immunization – 6211, Dental Camp – 1053, Eye Camp – 2105, Health Educator – 178, Family Planning – 1632, AIDS Awareness – 4027, Deworming – 13853, Curative Care – 1411, Referrals – 198, Handicap Integration – 35, TB Referrals – 478,  Diarrhea Management – 804, Potable water – 2569, Sanitation Drive – 7271, Sanitation facility – 313, Growth monitoring & Medical checkup – 3561, Garbage Disposal – 16800, Individual water connection  – 850, Health training – 59, Linkages

Income Generation Beneficiaries

Petty traders – 75, Micro Traders – 75, Production Units – 34, Self Employment – 64, Credit co-operative by women – 6, Small Business Development – 28

Vocational Training

Sewing – 298, Knitting – 30, Typing – 106, Shorthand – 4, Beauty Culture – 36,  Refrigeration & AC – 19

1. State Resource Centre Jamia Millia Islamia – Adult Edn.
2. DIET – Adult Edn
3. Bal Bhawan – Balwadi/REC/NFE
4. Nehru Bal Samiti
5. National School of Drama
6. National Open School
7. NCERT – Balwadi/NFE
8. Mobile Creche – Balwadi
9. Katha Khazana – NFE
10. Dept .of NCT of Delhi – EFA


1. AIIMS – Community Extension Service Public Health
2. RP Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences – Eye care
3. Love & Care –
4. Cheshire Home – TB & Chest Diseases
5. Cancer Society of India – Cancer
6. Indian Medical Association – Public Health
7. VHAI(Voluntary Health Assn. of India) – Public Health
8. Christian Medical Centre – Diagnostics
9. Indian Chest Institute – Chest Diseases
10. Indian Red Cross Society – Community Health
11. NGO AIDS Cell, AIIMS – AIDS prevention
12. Delhi TB Association – TB
13. Marie Stoppes Clinics – Family Planning
14. Delhi Council for Child Welfare – Orthopedic Services
15. Malaria Research Centre – Malaria/Filaria Control
16. Delhi Common Wealth Child & Women Association) – Health Worker Training
17. MCD TB Centre – Diagnostics
18. Ranbaxy Community Health Care Society – Community Health Services
(Development Service)
19. Dept. of Health, MCD

Almanac 1995-1996

As the curtain rolled down for the financial year 1994-95, April-1995 heralded another year of progress and growth for Deepalaya.

A chronological recount of programmes and activities for the year 1995-96 is given below.
April 1995.

01 : 3 months Training Programme for Samiti functionaries in accounts,
04:  Sanitation drive in 34 slum clusters of South and West Delhi.
07:  Theatre Workshop on literacy programme.
17-20: Training of Social entrepreneurs on education techniques.  Dance Training Programme.
27 : Workshop on AIDS awareness and STD.  A six day workshop for drafting of Perspective Plan.
May 1995
19:  Mr. S. Reghunathan, Commissioner Cum Secretary (Education), Government of Delhi, flagged off the Total Literacy Project at Gole Kuan, Okhla Phase-I
27:  Annual reports and audited Financial statements submitted to Deepalaya school
30-31 Workshop on development of post literacy strategies for sustainable development organised by State Resource Center, Jamia.  First Aid Civil Defence training for 3 days at DPP. Theatre workshop organised for Deepam Group
July 1995
Celebration of World Population Day in collaboration with Family Planning Association of India.
August 1995
06: Maitree Shree.  An Annual meeting ground for the sponsored child and the sponsor parent.  A cultural show is presented this evening.  Mr. Alok Mehta Editor Hindustan Times, Padmashree Dr. Shovna Narayan an eminent Kathak artist were the prominent personalities present on this day.
07: Mr, Momin Khan won the first prize for excellence in entreprenuership
15: Independence Day celebrated at project locations.
19-20 The cultural talents of 100 children were presented to an august gathering at the Indira Gandhi Indoor Stadium emphasising the need to spread literacy.  5000 learners participated in the literacy meet from Deepalaya at Indira Gandhi Indoor Stadium
22: Deepalaya experience in Community Development was shared with students of Lady Shri Ram College by the Chief Executive.
23: A rare honour for Deepalaya was to spread the light of caring and sharing through the Satellite Network of Star Television.  Connecting across Continents this visibility provide a landmark on the Electronic Map of the world.
26: NGO Aids Cell collaborated with Deepalaya for AIDS awareness.
September 1995
08: Talk on the All India Radio by the Chief Executive and a programme officer on Literacy Mission on the National Literacy Day.  Prathibimb Communications had a feature carried on Television “Beech Behas Meinâ€Â on Deepalaya activities and programmes.
09: Deepalaya School Children provided an elegant evening to a distinguished gathering  of NGO Heads and Senior Executive attending the South Asian Fund Raising Workshop at Surajkund.
25-27 Workshop on leadership effectiveness conducted by Centre for Educational Management and Development.
28-29 Workshop on adoption organised by Voluntary Adoption Resource Agency.
Chief Executive attended forum 95 at Costa Rica
19: Appointment of the Architect to begin the construction of Deepalaya School Building exclusively envisaged for educating and training over 2500 children living in slums.
A one day workshop on Personality Development was organised for CBO members at Deepalaya PLAN Project.
A seminar on Education for all, Teachers training package on interactive instructions.
21: An evaluation report submitted of the phase-in-projects of West Delhi as also the Malviya Nagar clusters of South Delhi carried out by, Association for stimulating know how (ASK).
Workshops on Health awareness and Family Planning organised at Deepalaya PLAN project for 30 women.
November 1995
01: Admission in the National Open School recorded an increase of 30% totaling to 173 students in Secondary and Senior Secondary Courses.
03: The singing duo of Mrs. & Mr Carlier of France visited Deepalaya School.  They sang to children and children danced making it a cultural exchange
07: A feedback  session on the phase-in evaluation- Process Documentation.  The study conducted and report prepared by ASK was shared which enabled us to relook at the strengths and weaknesses of PCMR strategy.
10: Workshop on Community and Preventive Health care organised at Deepalaya PLAN  Project.

More children joined the special coaching in Classical Dance by renowned and famed artists like Dr. Shovna Narayan, Padmashree Raja and Radha Reddy and Mr. Valmiki Banerjee
14: Children Day celebrated in all the Project locations.
26: Another annual event Abhinaya-1995 was staged with renewed vigour in partnership with students from Kalka Public School, Cambridge school and Deepalaya School.  The main objective is to sensitize and integrate the two streams of students and develop understanding and mutual respect.
December  1995
01: World AIDS Day held in projects to campaign against AIDS awareness
06-08: Deepalaya is identified as the lead organisation in assisting DDA Slum Wings, MCD, UNDP, M.P forum to implement the sanitation project in old F-Block, Raghubir Nagar.
12: A project proposal under section 35AC of the income Tax  Act 1961 by the National Committee was approved for Rs.1,86 crore for collection.
Ms. Nalini Rajan visiting as the charge-de-mission (education) at Aid et Action was enthralled at the talent and the knowledge of school children.
25: 20 children were on board East West Airlines to enjoy a fantasy flight on the eve of Christmas.  This maiden flight for the children has provided a memorable life time experience.  This was also  covered by DD 2 News â€ÂAAJ TAKâ€Â.
Strategic planning for phase-out from Deepalaya  PLAN project and consensus on a work plan to achieve phase-out in the West Delhi cluster has been worked out for areas where Deepalaya association has been for more than 8 years.
Indian Express brought out 22 advertisements in their News paper giving the name and address of Deepalaya to receive woolen clothes for the poor and needy.
30 CBO Health workers attended one day workshop on First Aid treatment.
January 1996
05: Workshop organised for Literacy Instructors Training.  About 130 volunteers attended.
11: Deepalaya teachers attended a maiden teleconferencing session organised at Vishva Yuvak Kendra.
17: The children of Deepalaya school were once again in the lime light in a grand cultural show organised jointly by Deepalaya.  Australian Students, Jawaharlal Nehru University students, IIT, St.Stephans College and New Era Public School,  Presentation at IIC on Environment Campaign.
20: A Pulse Polio Camp was organised with the support of Delhi Government to eradicate Polio.
22: Deepalaya entered a new partnership with Spastic Society of Northern India to jointly ameliorate the silent sufferings of disabled children and their families.
26: Republic Day celebrations held in all the clusters of South Delhi, North West Delhi and West Delhi Projects.
January-Feb 1996: 11 day workshop for Senior Program staff for strategic planning of DPP Phase-out projects.
February 1996
01-7 An awareness campaign was organised with support from All India Women’s Conference in project locations to educate women on Oil Conservation Techniques.
02: Children from Deepalaya school attended the All India UNESCO Information Test and successfully passed.  The pride of test being the rare distinction of one of our students standing fourth in the All India Rankings.  This was a test of General Knowledge and awareness of local and International affairs.  Launched fund Raising for open heart surgery & kidney transplantation.  Helped three such cases to meet the treatment cost.
13 German Youths visited Sanjay Colony to study our projects as recommended by Gandhi Peace Foundation in an Education Exchange Programme.
26th February to 2nd March: Orientation course organised by National Institute of Public Co-operation and child Development.
March 1996
08: International Women’s Day celebrated in 8 locations with lecture on Women’s rights, quiz, film show, geet sabha and importance of women’s literacy.
10-15 National Integration Camps for Youth, three youths attended from Deepalaya.
17: Review meetings of Senior Executive of Deepalaya, looking ahead.
21: A cultural evening for the Prince of Wales Business Leaders Forum Workshop delegates by Deepalaya School children.



In consonance with the vision/mission of Deepalaya, in relation with Deepalaya Goals and in tune with the programme strategy, the operational activities by Deepalaya and Community are considered a medium to achieve the objectives and Goals.  The anticipated change from one status to the other as a process, is the Development Paradigm.  It is expressed in three consecutive triangles.

The first triangle in its intervention at the community level, on the three axis has the Deepalaya process of PCMR(Planning Cum Micro-Realisation) on one axis, the Social Entrepreneur as localised technical/professional or operational Manpower on the second axis and formation or formulation of the community based organisation (CBO) to sustain, monitor and carry on the process and provide the continuum, facilitated  by the crusader, who is the animator from Deepalaya.

The PCMR, by its own nature and content, as a process is to develop the mechanism to identify motivate, train and place the Social Entrepreneur in the Community.  Peoples participation, involvement and the decision making processes establish the community structure representative of various elements with in the community to provide them the Human Infra-structure, which is absolutely essential for sustaining the collective interest and well being of the community.

Once the elements of the first triangle are in place and the PCMR phase in progressing, culminating in a Development Plan, cooperational plan, budgets and all related Objectives, Goals, etc. asset by the community, for the given cluster/locality, the programme implementation begins on a larger scale compared to the PCMR phase during which MicroRealisation of programme only are under taken.

The seconds phase elevates the crusader from the level of a trould  give evidence to the efforts unleashed in the first and second phase/triangle.  By this time CBO’s should have been well established, with its own norms, procedures, control mechanism, decision making capabilities resulting in self-rule.

The crusader in the meantime should either be able to establish himself/herself independently as an advisor, rather continue as a manager.  The Social Entrepreneur would have developed faculties to address most of the issues affecting the community in a professional manner with the help of external linkages,

The Community in the mean time should enter the path of Self-Reliance making external assistance almost, redundant Community Revolving fund is a clear Indicator for success.  Simultaneously the community as a collective or as individual in groups become capable of resisting all trends and kinds of exploitation, both physical and intellectual.

The Development Paradigm thus completes its cycle over the period of a decade, when Deepalaya intervention is no more required and the community begin to acquire quality of life on its own and become sustainable from all points of view, i.e. cultural, social, economic, moral. religious, and political.  A new world order at the micro which when spiralised can lead to micro and macro levels of world order and view.

Planning cum Micro- Realisation (P.C.M.R)

What is Planning cum Micro Realisation (P.C.M.R) :

Planning cum Micro Realisation (P.C.M.R) is a process oriented participatory Planning cum Micro-realisation exercise designed as the first phase towards launching an Integrated Development project.  P.C.M.R. is experimented   through programmes of micro-realisation in order to make the process practical and approach pragmatic.  P.C.M.R. as such is initially without any content or form, and not time bound but it takes its own shape and organizes  its own time frame as it moves.  The evolution of the phase  revolves around the activities generated though the initiation of the dialogue, which leads to actions of various nature as a result of people’s participation and involvement.

How Does It Take Place:

To begin with P.C.M.R is initiated between community and project organisers, on the one hand and later between community among themselves on the other hand.  This dialogue could develop into action programmes in the area of social, economic, cultural, organisational and other relevant fields of possible community involvement, depending on factors such as local potential and feasibility.

P.C.M.R., designed as the first phase of an Integrated Development approach, is the outcome of feedback of many years of experience in implementing development programmes of various kinds and nature.  It is the outcome of a learning process and is not absolute in any way and no attempt is made to define it.  As the people’s participation, involvement and action are the determinants, the content, from and time frame, or  for that matter everything, emanates from the people’s collective activity.  The P.C.M.R. cannot have any predetermined targets or any rigid objective to achieve initially.  Infact, the objectives of the possible project, as an outcome of P.C.M.R would be developed through the process of dialogue at the community level, their participation and decision making.  Similarly, the programme, the target, the budget and all other features of a project, should automatically evolve as a result of the interactive involvement of the community. There should be no preconceived notion about the programme, except that the approach is in favour of the development of the community.  Whether the development will be through an Integrated approach or through any single line activity in the field of social or economic or other areas of community involvement, it should be the natural consequences of such a mutual and creative communication.

What Are The Outcomes Of P.C.M.R:

Planning Cum Micro Realisation, when carefully implemented generates lot of ideas and evolves a large number of opportunities for development action. No area of human activity is out of its scope.

1. Organisation Of Community For Decision Making:

P.C.M.R should begin with the organisation of community as the central activity which results in the formation of community associations.  It will depend on the localisation whether this community structure would take the shape of a Gramsabha (Village Assembly) or Mahila mandal (women’s Organisation) or Youth Forum or result in evolution of a programme like a Library, Sports Club or prayer Groups or any other forum which not only bring people together but also initiate a genuine effort in collective planning and individual action in the collective structure.

The development of the Organisational Community frame work or the human infra-structure is crucial and a basic pre-requisite to any organised action for collective good of the community.  Hence great emphasis is given for creating opportunity for dialogue, and intellectual sharing among people which can precipitate reflection and action leading to Praxis. The organisational community structure of people can be better sustained when the organisation results in an activity, or the activity in turn promotes better organisation.  Hence community organisation, creation of ‘people structures, decision making by the people in structures and the formulation of  an activity or programmes, shall become a medium or a means for strengthening the structure. Hence  Organisational work and establishment of  community structures are mutually supportive, effective and complimentary.

Going further into details, the dialogue needs to be developed between:

a) Project Organiser and Community
b) Target community and others in the area
c) Among the target community
 1. Between Adults
 2. Between Adults and Youth
 3. Among Men for specific interest
 4. Among Women for specific interest
 5. Among Youth for specific interest

The above combination of dialogues and interaction may result in the identification of a largenumber of action programmes or events which would need planning for its implementation. The process of micro-realisation, when subjected to constant review will provide feedback that the planning is in proper direction or not.

Examples of some of the events as outcome of such dialogue are:
Formation of :

a) Basti/Gramsabha (Slum/Village Assembly)
b) Mahila Mandal (Women’s Forum)
c) Youth Forum
d) Petty traders Forum
e) Artisans Group
f) Cluster groups
g) Bhajan Mandals/cultural forum, sports club etc.
The above and similar forums can result in various activities such as:

1) Monthly or  Fortnightly  routine meetings at basti/village or group level
2) Mother and child welfare programmes.
3) Thrift and Credit Schemes.
4) Sports meet
5) Artisans Day
6) Basti/Village Library
7) Study visits to a Factory or Artisan Centre
8) Training programmes of various kinds
9) Picnic
10) Study Tour/exposure visits etc.

Such activities as above are not likely to demand high budget and may be managed at people’s level without external assistance. This approach not only gives opportunity for self-reliance from day one but also strengthens people’s organisation and help them to test or evaluate the strength of the organisation and the interest or stake of the individual through similar and repeated activities.

During the above dialogue, organisation and activity, the different parties involved namely community people, project  organisers  and other s like Government, Bank, Panchayat  etc.,
obtain an opportunity to understand each other and  judge the interest of each other as well as gauge the capacity of different involved entities. This will help to avoid misunderstanding of certain nature which can arise between  people and project organisers, and form a basis for understanding  each other’ roles and responsibilities for future activities.

2. Study Of Problems/Issues:

During this phase, there is great scope to study the problems or identify the issues  faced by the community as a whole or a section of the community.  Few problems or issues, which may be studied  can be related to:

a) Land – ownership and related issues.
b) Means of Production – ownership and utilisation
c) Trade – input supply – products – market mechanism.
d) Labour, related issues.
f) Service Infra-structure-adequacy and accessibility.

The  above are few examples of basic areas where issues are present as one is planning a development programme to be implemented for improving the quality of life. It is essential that our  understanding is  proper of major basic issues which affect the normal lives of people. Without tackling the above, which are root causes of poverty and deprivation programmes planned for developing weaker sections will be of no avail. Lack of understanding of the role of middlemen and exploiters, and the nature of their operation may lead to negative results as we implement development programmes. Such a situation will be much more harmful to the target group and may turn out to be more useful to the exploiting group.  Such planning and implementation may bring forth unintended results, not useful to the beneficiary group.

The approach or strategy adopted and the means used for tacking the issues will depend on the organisational strength of the people as to resist the temptations of the exploiter, and their determination to stand united firm and even willing to suffer for an extended period of time.  It is possible that the organised group, when exposed to the realities of the  issues, may become overcharged with emotions.  They may have to be motivated to offer  peaceful resistance and to stand united and fight for justice.  Here again the action programmes identified for tacking the issues will depend on local factors and the planning will have to be adapted to local context.

3. The Process Of Planning:

The need for development of poor communities is not disputed, but what kind of development and how to implement it, is only debatable.  Hence during the P.C.M.R. phase, there is a simultaneous action needed for planning for development along with organisation of community.

The planning process in the P.C.M.R phase is so evolved that planning is done by the people with their direct participation and without any undue haste.

During the planning process the following aspects are to be considered:

a) Programme identification
b) Techno-economic appraisal
c) Resource inventory
d) Micro-realisation of the programme.

The identification of the programme should be the natural choice of the community after sufficient dialogue /interaction and should be within their financial, intellectual and managerial capacity as partners in implementation. Assistance needed for techno-economic appraisal should be easily available and this factor should not stop people from proceeding further.

An understanding of the need for resources and its availability is a must. In this regard, micro-realisation of resources through own means may be attempted during this phase.  For example  an attempt to obtain assistance from the various Government welfare schemes can be made. This will not only bring  home the implications of procedural matters for obtaining such assistance,  but will also enable the people to assess to what extent such resources can  be relied upon for all practical purposes.

During the planning process, efforts should be made to help the community to rely on people’s resources as much as possible.  This will avoid the tendency of over dependence on others.  This will also give the community a training to manage  their own resources first and implement, even though small, a programme by themselves.  This opportunity will also enable them to observe each other, in power and leadership, understand each other in their honesty, operational efficiency, objectivity etc., judge the feasibility and viability of programmes, natural consequences of their efforts and related matters of implementation and management.

The planning process, as evolved naturally should lead to a choice of  programmes, which may be in any field of activity.  For example the programme need not be of any economic consequence.  It can be simply social or even religious.  At times, it can take the course of a struggle for obtaining a legitimate right. Hence the planning should touch upon the basic issues which affect the life of the people and the education process in planning should help people to find a workable solution for their problems in a practical way.

To summarise the outcome of P.C.M.R as first phase in the planning and implementing a Development project the following can be enumerated:

1. Organisation of the community resulting in appropriate people’ s structures for dialogue, reflection and action.

2. Identification  of problems/basic issues through activity under (1) above for a detailed study of their implications and work out possible strategy for tacking them collectively.

3. Begin a planning process through which the people can identify:

 a) Programme of their choice based on REAL or FELT needs. These identified programmes can be subjected to techno-economic appraisal for viability and feasibility.

 b) Micro-realisation of such identified programmes with peoples own resources or resources from Government, Banks, Co-operatives or donor agencies etc. as also to assess the potential or possible
  dependence on such resources.

 c) Evolve programmes of self managed thrift and credit, mechanism as part of the micro-realisation, and    nurture these for improving quality of life.

 d) Develop a large number of training possibilities, formal and informal in various fields namely social, economic, health, education and organisation so that the people acquire the faculty of self implementation   and management over a period of time. The essence of instilling confidence and self-reliance in people and strengthening   of people’s organisation is a constant and continuing (dynamic) deeducational process.

 e) Finally towards the end of the phase, a micro and/or macro plan for the area and people based, on the study, survey etc., emerge which can be implemented in phases or at a time, depending on the availability of resources and feasibility  for implementation.

 f) The qualitative achievements of community organisation, training for implementation, capacity for resourcing etc., should stand the community in good stead in the subsequent phases  of project   implementation and management.

© Mr.T.K.Mathew. We like othere to adopt this philosophy but at the same time expect that a line of acknowledgement is given while quoting or using the same.


This is the concept of self-employeds.  It replaces the cadre of employed hands.  In employment, unless the person is committed, qualified and studious, the programme suffers, where as in the case of an Entrepreneur, the onus is on this person, who updates his skill according to the local demand, maintains quality, keep clients happy and sustains the programme in one’s own interest.  Such a situation would bring automatically commitment and concern of the worker, loyalty to the clients, and quality and sustainability of the programme.  This would also avoid master-servant relations, potential labour demands, disputes and related hassles.

Keeping in view of the above, it is considered useful to animate a cadre of people, who are in the slum basties or in the neighborhood or from outside, whose credentials can be verified and whose real potential/interest are assessed, and who can be invited to become Social Entrepreneurs.  This cadre over a period of time could equip themselves to be local consultants on subject matters like education, community health, community organisation, skill upgradation, income enhancement etc. and they set-up in due course their own establishment (Social Clinics) diversifying the business, as per local demand all the while updating their own skill and capability.  In forming such a cadre, Deepalaya makes its own contribution, as this cadre, Deepalaya makes its own contribution, as this cadre is the human (potential) assets created and left behind in the community when Deepalaya phase-out.  Similarly the Community Association  and the families facilitate and contribute to the sustenance of the s.  The process and procedures can be of the following order and manner:

1) The community organisation and PCMR process identify the local need at individual,  family, cluster and Samiti level in a given geographical area.
2) Having identified the need and adequately motivated to fill in the gap which normally exists in any need e.g.. literacy, skill etc. the community and Deepalaya, and for that matter any actor among the above look for, identify, exhort, assess, select and  facilitate s to take up work in the slums.
3) The , enters into a Memorandum of Understanding with the local  CBO to develop and maintain a long-standing working relationship.
4) The Samiti should be able to provide the accommodation and motivate the family to  purchase the service/product of the to the extend the families and  Samiti can realistically afford.
5) Deepalaya, on realistic assessment of the families financial status should be able to  subsidise the cost through Samiti/family to ensure minimum wages and related perks/ fringe benefits to the , so that it becomes lucrative for the Social  Entrepreneur.  The keep close liaison with the family and Samiti and collects fees at rates mutually agreed upon, from the clients directly and the  balance is only subsidised.
6) Norms and procedures of the s working namely punctuality, regularity, absence from work, replacement during absence, compensation for work/fees chargeable, category of clients, number of clients, minimum and maximum, standards and quality, indicators for assessment of quality and quantity, training days, time costs related to the training, inspection by Samiti/Deepalaya, safe custody, up-keep and maintenance of assets related to work, use/mis-use of accommodation, rules governing dispossession etc. accountability, transparency, credibility, discontinuation, disqualification, severance etc. should be part of the Memorandum of Understanding.
7) Similarly the role and function of Samiti in maintaining the by the Samiti and responsibility of the family, as well as joint responsibilities of the Samiti, s and family should form part of the M.O.U.
8) This cadre, over a period of time and when Deepalaya phase out finally fill in the subject matter need of the local community without affecting the structure and operation of neither the community (CBO) nor Deepalaya, leaving the Social
Entrepreneur and the family interact closely on a give and take basis professionally.


One find many definitions for the word Crusadeâ€Â in a dictionary.  The one found apt in the context of Deepalaya is quoted below: Crusade is defined as any vigorous, concerted Movement for a cause or against an abuseâ€Â  The above definition is very apt as Deepalaya is a movement for the ‘Cause’ of the poor slum dwellers and Deepalaya is working against the “abuseâ€Â  of exploitation, oppression etc. of poor, specially the child in slums.  Deepalaya efforts are vigorous, on a fast mode to reach out to maximum with efficiency and professionalism.  Deepalaya wish to work as a team, a concerted expression of concern and commitment.

Deepalaya had the benefit of working with a large number of professionals and had the experience also of large turnover of these professionals, which it ill affords as Deepalaya Mission is to “change peopleâ€Â to change their environment.  This is possible when time, skill and people’s participation are given space, saving these from the exploits of pressure/strings of any kind and manner.  Hence the experiment of the Crusader.

The concept of Crusader is thought of from the point of view of building up of a cadre/order of Deepalaya, who by virtue of their concern, commitment and loyalty, (none of these are easily judged) willingness to work hard, subject one self to a constant learning process, delearning and relearning, acquiring, retaining, imbibing the managerial skill, and  pursuing a profession which has its profundity, as one promotes and prompts the weaker sections in society towards empowerment and liberation.
Deepalaya wishes to launch this scheme effective first January 1994.  The process of short listing the applications for the Crusader positions is on, from thousand responses received against an advertisement in the Employment News.  We should be able to select atleast 25 of them and obtain a crop of 15-20 to stay back, if there are dropout/turnover even among them.

PLACEMENT: Once the Crusaders are selected, they are placed  in “phase inâ€Â cluster   s for training for a period of one year.

TRAINING:  The training is so proposed, as to be pragmatic, in Situ, hands on and   systematic.  Professional subject matter coming to them through appropriate subject matter specialists from external sources.  A weekly review and sharing of work in the cluster with the community will provide the practical aspects and feed back of learning-(Refer detailed urriculum and methodology attached)

FUTURE:  The Crusader begins as a grass roots trainee Manager, who over a period of 2/3 years become a full fledged professional Manager of an    optimum sized cluster, where all the facilities of a Manager are fully   utilized and adequately compensated.  As the cluster develop, and as    Deepalaya phases out, Crusader turned Manager could stay back as Consultant / Manager to the cluster, whose demands adequately substantiates it and get compensated at community level, making

Deepalaya support again redundant. This Crusader turned Manager/Consultant could move on to or integrate with other clusters or can be part of Deepalaya consortium,   when Deepalaya acts as the mother with large number of Crusaders turned, off-spring societies, promote Deepalaya work, without Deepalaya   remaining operational any more but resourcing and linking for the consortium members which are headed by Crusader turned off-spring   Societies.

PERIOD OF ATTACHMENT : A Crusader may remain attached to Deepalaya for not more than five years.  There may not be a detachment or severance but a decentralised functioning is envisaged.  The net work of Deepalaya can be extended all over, say Delhi, through this process of annual recruitment, placement, training and enabling to serve weaker sections, who need such support in abundant measure.

HUMAN RESOURCE justify : The relevance of the Human Resource Centre has to be viewed from this angle at Deepalaya, as an institutional base, to develop the cadre of Deepalaya, to make the out-reach sustainable and the quality of change feasible and dependable.

Apart from the Crusaders, the Social Entrepreneurs and CBO functionaries shall also be beneficiaries of the Human Resource Centre making its need justified.

Sponsor A Child

Deepalaya Institutional Care Programme
Read more
Become Deepalaya Supporter, Sign Up today
The largest operational NGO in Delhi NCR